We define commodity as a good that has value or utility, and a very low level of differentiation or specialization. However, it does not mean that all those goods that do not have differentiation are commodities, for example, seawater is not a commodity because it does not have a value or utility.
One of the main characteristics of a commodities market is that the profit margins are more limited or scarce. In addition, we are not only talking about raw materials or primary goods. It happens that, when a certain industry evolves in such a way, that many suppliers can perform something that was previously done by a company, we talk about “commoditization” of a product or industry, such as the pharmaceutical industry where the generic drug can be accessed in a cheaper way.
Classification of commodities
Grains: Soybeans, Wheat, Corn, Oats, Barley.
Softs: Cotton, Orange Juice, Coffee, Sugar, Cocoa.
Energies: Crude Oil, Natural Gas, Ethanol, Naphtha.
Metals: Gold, Silver, Copper, Platinum, Aluminum, Palladium.
A share is a unit of ownership in a company that can be put up for sale to investors.
The total value of the company is divided into units of the same size. Each of the units is known as a share. If a company is worth 200 million dollars and issues 100 million shares, each share has a value of $ 2, or 200 cents.
When the value of the company fluctuates, the price of its shares does the same. Thus, investors who buy shares in a company have the hope that it increases in value, allowing them to sell the shares at a higher price.
The shares are also known as securities. You can trade shares during the opening hours of your corresponding stock exchange.
In the United Kingdom, for example, the buy and sell takes place within the trading hours of 08:00 to 16:30. However, there is also an FTSE auction between 07:50 and 08:00 before opening, and between 16:30 and 16:35 before taking the final closing values.
See the table below for a list of opening and closing times on the world stock exchanges.
Market Time Zone Opening Closing
Australian Securities Exchange (ASX) AEST (GMT + 10) 10:00 16:10
Euronext Paris (EPA) CET (GMT + 1) 9:00 5:30 PM
Frankfurt Xetra (FSX) CET (GMT + 1) 9:00 5:30 PM
Hong Kong Stock Exchange (HKEX) HKT (GMT + 8) 9:30 4:00 PM
London Stock Exchange (LSE) GMT 8:00 4:30 PM
Milan Stock Exchange (MTA) CET (GMT + 1) 9:00 17:25
NASDAQ ET (GMT-5) 9:30 4:00 PM
New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) ET (GMT-5) 9:30 4:00 PM
Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE) JST (GMT + 9) 9:30 3:00 PM